Lesson Overview

In this lesson we will:

  • Download Open Source Apache Kafka;
  • Setup our Kafka broker, initially in a standalone non-clustered mode;
  • Learn how to start and stop Zookeeper and Kafka;
  • Locate the Kafka state files for administration purposes.

Downloading Kafka

As Kafka is free and open source, we can download it freely from the web at kafka.apache.org. Download the binary and uncompress it using the following commands:

wget https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/3.3.1/kafka_2.13-3.3.1.tgz
gzip -d kafka_2.13-3.3.1.tgz
tar -xf kafka_2.13-3.3.1.tar

We can explore the directory structure with the following commands:

cd kafka_2.13-3.3.1.tar
ls -la

Which should output:

drwxr-xr-x    9 benjaminwootton  staff    288 13 Oct 12:32 .
drwxr-xr-x    9 benjaminwootton  staff    288 13 Oct 12:32 ..
-rw-r--r--    1 benjaminwootton  staff  14842 29 Sep 20:03 LICENSE
-rw-r--r--    1 benjaminwootton  staff  28184 29 Sep 20:03 NOTICE
drwxr-xr-x   41 benjaminwootton  staff   1312 13 Oct 12:32 bin
drwxr-xr-x   18 benjaminwootton  staff    576 13 Oct 12:32 config
drwxr-xr-x  104 benjaminwootton  staff   3328 13 Oct 12:32 libs
drwxr-xr-x   13 benjaminwootton  staff    416 13 Oct 12:32 licenses
drwxr-xr-x    3 benjaminwootton  staff     96 13 Oct 12:32 site-docs

Starting Zookeeper

Kafka has historically had a significant dependence on a second piece of software named Apache Zookeeper for it's state and cluster management. The Kafka project has been actively working for some time on removing this dependency, but for now, Kafka still requires Zookeeper.

Therefore, before bringing up our Kafka cluster, we need to begin by starting Zookeeper. This is distributed with the Kafka download and started from the bin folder, using the default zookeeper.properties file which is also distributed with Kafka:

./bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh ./config/zookeeper.properties

Running this script should start Zookeeper relatively quickly with no obvious errors in the logs.

Starting The Broker

With Zookeeper up and healthy, we can now move towards starting Kafka. This requires a server.properties file, of which as with Zookeeper, the default one is fine for our purposes.

Because Zookeeper is running in our first terminal, we need to open a second terminal and issue the following command:

cd kafka_2.13-3.3.1
./bin/kafka-server-start.sh ./config/server.properties

Again, this should start quickly with no obvious errors in the logs.

We now have a running Zookeeper and a running Kafka broker connected to it.

Stopping The Broker

If we needed to shut down, the cleanest way to do this is to close down Kafka and then Zookeeper, in reverse order to which we started the processes.

Because we started the Zookeeper and Kafka servers in the foreground of our terminal, the processes will be closed when we press CTRL+C.

However, in more realistic deployments we would start Kafka broker using some mechanism that continues to run after we close the terminal window - for instance nohup, within tmux, or as a service. In that instance, a seperate script is provided to manually stop the Zookeeper and Kafka servers:

./bin/zookeeper-server-stop.sh ./config/zookeeper.properties
./bin/kafka-server-stop.sh ./config/server.properties

Feel free to start and stop your processes through various mechanisms, but ensure they are running again before progressing with the lesson.

Command Line scripts

The Kafka distribution that we downloaded comes with a number of scripts which are found in the ./bin folder.

cd kafka_2.13-3.3.1
ls -la bin/


-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1423  8 Sep 22:21 connect-distributed.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1396  8 Sep 22:21 connect-mirror-maker.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1420  8 Sep 22:21 connect-standalone.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    861  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-acls.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    873  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-broker-api-versions.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    860  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-cluster.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    864  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-configs.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    945  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-console-consumer.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    944  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-console-producer.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    871  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-consumer-groups.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    948  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-consumer-perf-test.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    871  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-delegation-tokens.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    869  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-delete-records.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    866  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-dump-log.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    863  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-features.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    865  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-get-offsets.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    870  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-leader-election.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    863  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-log-dirs.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    873  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-metadata-shell.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    862  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-mirror-maker.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    959  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-producer-perf-test.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    874  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-reassign-partitions.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    874  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-replica-verification.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel  10587  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-run-class.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1376  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-server-start.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1361  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-server-stop.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    860  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-storage.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    945  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-streams-application-reset.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    863  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-topics.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    879  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-transactions.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    958  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-verifiable-consumer.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    958  8 Sep 22:21 kafka-verifiable-producer.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1714  8 Sep 22:21 trogdor.sh
drwxr-xr-x  30 benjaminwootton  wheel    960  8 Sep 22:21 windows
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    867  8 Sep 22:21 zookeeper-security-migration.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1393  8 Sep 22:21 zookeeper-server-start.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1366  8 Sep 22:21 zookeeper-server-stop.sh
-rwxr-xr-x   1 benjaminwootton  wheel   1019  8 Sep 22:21 zookeeper-shell.sh

These administration scripts can be used for tasks such as creating topics, removing messages, publishing and consuming messages and repartitioning topics. By default, there is no graphical user interface or administration tool for managing Kafka. The scripts are the primary route.

We will cover these scripts in more detail in the proceeding lessons.

Kafka State Location

As Kafka is working and exchanging messages between producers and consumers, it needs to store state such as the messages waiting to be consumed and details about the producers and consumers. Though this state will be heavily cached in memory for performance purposes, they will also need to be written to disk in case the Kafka process was to crash.

By default, this data is stored in the /tmp/kafka-logs directory.

ls -la /tmp/kafka-logs


drwxr-xr-x   6 benjaminwootton  wheel   192 12 Nov 13:34 __consumer_offsets-0
drwxr-xr-x   6 benjaminwootton  wheel   192 12 Nov 13:34 __consumer_offsets-1
-rw-r--r--   1 benjaminwootton  wheel     0 12 Nov 13:32 cleaner-offset-checkpoint
-rw-r--r--   1 benjaminwootton  wheel     4 14 Nov 14:26 log-start-offset-checkpoint
-rw-r--r--   1 benjaminwootton  wheel    88 12 Nov 13:32 meta.properties
drwxr-xr-x   6 benjaminwootton  wheel   192 12 Nov 13:34 new_pizza_orders-0
-rw-r--r--   1 benjaminwootton  wheel  1216 14 Nov 14:26 recovery-point-offset-checkpoint
-rw-r--r--   1 benjaminwootton  wheel  1216 14 Nov 14:26 replication-offset-checkpoint

This state store is managed internally by Kafka, so you wouldn't typically have to interact with it. However, it's important to know where it is stored for a few reasons:

  • Some operating systems have processes which automatically clear files from /tmp. You may wish to relocate the Kafka state file in this instance;
  • You may wish to add backups and monitoring around this directory to improve stability and chance of recovery in a critical situation;
  • If you would like to start afresh with your Kafka broker, stopping the broker and removing all of the state is the easiest way to do this.

Next Lesson

In the Next Lesson we will go through the process of administering topics which will eventually hold our messages and events.

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